And bigger quantities had a bigger impact. The researchers thoroughly adjusted for other factors so that the link cannot be explained away by the espresso drinkers having healthier lifestyles. Actually, they were more likely to smoke and did less exercise. But in this case, the researchers think that other plant chemical substances in espresso are behind the benefits. They think substances such as anti-oxidants may cut the odds of prostate cancer and reduce the odds of deadly tumors by altering degrees of sex hormones, regulating blood sugar and cutting irritation. This is why it is so important that studies such as this are repeated by others, to see if the full total result stacks up in other sets of men.Cell polarity is completely essential for differentiation; otherwise you have a ball of cells, not organized tissue. In fact, we start out as a wad of cells, but within 24 hours, some cells die and others become part of the hollow sphere with an internal level – – the primitive ectoderm – – that may further differentiate into an embryo, and an outer coating – – the primitive endoderm – – that sustains the embryo during development. Ceramide distributes to the apical end of the cell, says Kannan Krishnamurthy, MCG graduate student and first author of the scholarly research published in the Feb. 2 problem of the Journal of Biological Chemistry.